REMAP-CAP was supported by the European Union through FP7-HEALTH-2013-INNOVATION: the Platform for European Preparedness Against (Re-)emerging Epidemics (PREPARE) consortium (grant 602525) and the Horizon 2020 research and innovation program: the Rapid European Covid-19 Emergency Research response (RECOVER) consortium (grant 101003589) and by grants from the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council (APP1101719 and APP1116530), the Health Research Council of New Zealand (16/631), the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (Strategy for Patient-Oriented Research Innovative Clinical Trials Program Grant 158584 and COVID-19 Rapid Research Operating Grant 447335), the U.K. National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) and the NIHR Imperial Biomedical Research Centre, the Health Research Board of Ireland (CTN 2014-012), the UPMC Learning While Doing Program, the Translational Breast Cancer Research Consortium, the French Ministry of Health (PHRC-20-0147), the Minderoo Foundation, Amgen, Eisai, the Global Coalition for Adaptive Research, and the Wellcome Trust Innovations Project (215522). The ATTACC platform was supported by grants from the Canadian Institutes of Health Research, LifeArc, Thistledown Foundation, Research Manitoba, CancerCare Manitoba Foundation, Victoria General Hospital Foundation, Ontario Ministry of Health, and the Peter Munk Cardiac Centre. The ACTIV-4a platform was supported by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and administered through OTA-20-011 and was supported in part by NIH agreement 1OT2HL156812-01. Dr. Goligher is the recipient of an Early Career Investigator award from the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (grant AR7-162822). Dr. Gordon is funded by an NIHR Research Professorship (RP-2015-06-18). Dr. Turgeon is funded by a Canada Research Chair–Tier 2. Dr. Zarychanski is the recipient of the Lyonel G. Israels Research Chair in Hematology (University of Manitoba).
Disclosure forms provided by the authors are available with the full text of this article at NEJM.org.
Drs. Goligher, Bradbury, McVerry, Lawler, Berger, and Gong and Drs. Berry, McArthur, Neal, Hochman, Webb, and Zarychanski contributed equally to this article.
The members of the executive writing committee are as follows: Ewan C. Goligher, M.D., Ph.D., Charlotte A. Bradbury, M.D., Ph.D., Bryan J. McVerry, M.D., Patrick R. Lawler, M.D., M.P.H., Jeffrey S. Berger, M.D., Michelle N. Gong, M.D., Marc Carrier, M.D., Harmony R. Reynolds, M.D., Anand Kumar, M.D., Alexis F. Turgeon, M.D., Lucy Z. Kornblith, M.D., Susan R. Kahn, M.D., John C. Marshall, M.D., Keri S. Kim, Pharm.D., Brett L. Houston, M.D., Lennie P.G. Derde, M.D., Ph.D., Mary Cushman, M.D., Tobias Tritschler, M.D., Derek C. Angus, M.D., M.P.H., Lucas C. Godoy, M.D., Zoe McQuilten, Ph.D., Bridget-Anne Kirwan, Ph.D., Michael E. Farkouh, M.D., Maria M. Brooks, Ph.D., Roger J. Lewis, M.D., Ph.D., Lindsay R. Berry, Ph.D., Elizabeth Lorenzi, Ph.D., Anthony C. Gordon, M.B., B.S., M.D., Scott M. Berry, Ph.D., Colin J. McArthur, M.B., Ch.B., Matthew D. Neal, M.D., Judith S. Hochman, M.D., Steven A. Webb, M.P.H., Ph.D., and Ryan Zarychanski, M.D.
The members of the block writing committee are as follows: Tania Ahuja, Pharm.D., Farah Al-Beidh, Ph.D., Djillali Annane, M.D., Ph.D., Yaseen M. Arabi, M.D., Diptesh Aryal, M.D., Lisa Baumann Kreuziger, M.D., Abi Beane, Ph.D., Zahra Bhimani, M.P.H., Shailesh Bihari, Ph.D., Henny H. Billett, M.D., Lindsay Bond, H.B.Sc., Marc Bonten, Ph.D., Frank Brunkhorst, M.D., Meredith Buxton, Ph.D., Adrian Buzgau, B.A.S., Lana A. Castellucci, M.D., Sweta Chekuri, M.D., Jen-Ting Chen, M.D., Allen C. Cheng, Ph.D., Tamta Chkhikvadze, M.D., Benjamin Coiffard, M.D., Aira Contreras, M.A., Todd W. Costantini, M.D., Sophie de Brouwer, Ph.D., Michelle A. Detry, Ph.D., Abhijit Duggal, M.D., M.P.H., Vladimír Džavík, M.D., Mark B. Effron, M.D., Heather F. Eng, B.A., Jorge Escobedo, M.D., Lise J. Estcourt, M.B., B.Chir., D.Phil., Brendan M. Everett, M.D., M.P.H., Dean A. Fergusson, Ph.D., Mark Fitzgerald, Ph.D., Robert A. Fowler, M.D., Joshua D. Froess, M.S., Zhuxuan Fu, M.S., M.P.H., Jean P. Galanaud, M.D., Benjamin T. Galen, M.D., Sheetal Gandotra, M.D., Timothy D. Girard, M.D., M.S.C.I., Andrew L. Goodman, M.D., Herman Goossens, M.D., Cameron Green, M.Sc., Yonatan Y. Greenstein, M.D., Peter L. Gross, M.D., Rashan Haniffa, Ph.D., Sheila M. Hegde, M.D., M.P.H., Carolyn M. Hendrickson, M.D., Alisa M. Higgins, Ph.D., Alexander A. Hindenburg, M.D., Aluko A. Hope, M.D., M.S.C.E., James M. Horowitz, M.D., Christopher M. Horvat, M.D., M.H.A., David T. Huang, M.D., M.P.H., Kristin Hudock, M.D., M.S.T.R., Beverley J. Hunt, M.D., Mansoor Husain, M.D., Robert C. Hyzy, M.D., Jeffrey R. Jacobson, M.D., Devachandran Jayakumar, M.D., Norma M. Keller, M.D., Akram Khan, M.D., Yuri Kim, M.D., Ph.D., Andrei Kindzelski, M.D., Ph.D., Andrew J. King, Ph.D., M. Margaret Knudson, M.D., Aaron E. Kornblith, M.D., Matthew E. Kutcher, M.D., Michael A. Laffan, D.M., Francois Lamontagne, M.D., Grégoire Le Gal, M.D., Ph.D., Christine M. Leeper, M.D., Eric S. Leifer, Ph.D., George Lim, M.D., Felipe Gallego Lima, M.D., Kelsey Linstrum, M.S., Edward Litton, Ph.D., Jose Lopez-Sendon, Ph.D., Sylvain A. Lother, M.D., Nicole Marten, R.N., Andréa Saud Marinez, Pharm.D., Mary Martinez, M.S., Eduardo Mateos Garcia, M.D., Stavroula Mavromichalis, M.A., Daniel F. McAuley, M.D., Emily G. McDonald, M.D., Anna McGlothlin, Ph.D., Shay P. McGuinness, M.B., Ch.B., Saskia Middeldorp, M.D., Ph.D., Stephanie K. Montgomery, M.Sc., Paul R. Mouncey, M.Sc., Srinivas Murthy, M.D., Girish B. Nair, M.D., Rahul Nair, M.D., Alistair D. Nichol, M.B., Ph.D., Jose C. Nicolau, M.D., Ph.D., Brenda Nunez-Garcia, B.A., John J. Park, B.S., Pauline K. Park, M.D., Rachael L. Parke, Ph.D., Jane C. Parker, B.N., Sam Parnia, M.D., Ph.D., Jonathan D. Paul, M.D., Mauricio Pompilio, Ph.D., John G. Quigley, M.D., Robert S. Rosenson, M.D., Natalia S. Rost, M.D., Kathryn Rowan, Ph.D., Fernanda O. Santos, M.D., Marlene Santos, M.D., Mayler O. Santos, M.Sc., Lewis Satterwhite, M.D., Christina T. Saunders, Ph.D., Jake Schreiber, M.P.H., Roger E.G. Schutgens, M.D., Ph.D., Christopher W. Seymour, M.D., Deborah M. Siegal, M.D., Delcio G. Silva, Jr., M.Med., Aneesh B. Singhal, M.D., Arthur S. Slutsky, M.D., Dayna Solvason, Simon J. Stanworth, F.R.C.P., D.Phil., Anne M. Turner, M.P.H., Wilma van Bentum-Puijk, M.Sc., Frank L. van de Veerdonk, M.D., Ph.D., Sean van Diepen, M.D., Gloria Vazquez-Grande, M.D., Lana Wahid, M.D., Vanessa Wareham, H.B.Sc., R. Jay Widmer, M.D., Ph.D., Jennifer G. Wilson, M.D., Eugene Yuriditsky, M.D., and Yongqi Zhong, M.B., M.P.H.
This article was published on August 4, 2021, at NEJM.org.
A data sharing statement provided by the authors is available with the full text of this article at NEJM.org.
We thank the patients and their families who participated in this trial and the members of the data and safety monitoring boards of each platform.